Mutations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are molecular events with high frequency in tumorigenesis. Mutated genes can be detected not only in tumor cells, but also in some precancerous lesions or precancerous tissue cells in different forms and degrees. Gene mutation, the detection of gene mutation is of great value in the study of tumorigenesis mechanism, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, prognosis evaluation and treatment plan selection. The main forms of gene mutation are point mutation, gene deletion (1-2 base deletion, one fragment or one exon deletion), gene translocation or rearrangement, gene insertion, methylation and chromosomal non-histone changes.
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